The introduction of an analytical essay should get the audience involved in reading your paper. There are three main things that your introduction should contain: You need to figure out your future audience to know how to grab their attention. After you made a hook, you need to create your thesis statement.
Mechanism[ edit ] A two-party system often develops in a plurality voting system. In this system, voters have a single vote, which they can cast for a single candidate in their district, in which only one legislative seat is available. In plurality voting also referred to as first past the postin which the winner of the seat is determined purely by the candidate with the most votes, several characteristics can serve to discourage the development of third parties and reward the two major parties.
Duverger laid out two paths by which plurality voting systems lead to fewer major parties: This puts geographically thinly spread parties at a significant disadvantage to geographically concentrated ones with the same overall level of public support. An example of this is the Liberal Democrats in the United Kingdomwhose proportion of seats in the legislature is significantly less than their proportion of the national vote.
The Green Party of Canada is also a good example.
Another example was seen in the U. Gerrymandering is sometimes used to counteract such geographic difficulties in local politics but is controversial on a large scale.
These numerical disadvantages can create an artificial limit on the level at which a third party can engage in the political process. The second unique problem is both statistical and tactical. Duverger suggested an election in whichmoderate voters and 80, radical voters are voting for a single official.
If two moderate parties ran candidates and one radical candidate were to run, the radical candidate would win unless one of the moderate candidates gathered fewer than 20, votes.
Observing this, moderate voters would be more likely to vote for the candidate most likely to gain more votes, with the goal of defeating the radical candidate. Either the two parties must merge, or one moderate party must fail, as the voters gravitate to the two strong parties, a trend Duverger called polarization.
For example, the political chaos in the United States immediately preceding the Civil War allowed the Republican Party to replace the Whig Party as the progressive half of the American political landscape.
Loosely united on a platform of country-wide economic reform and federally funded industrialization, the decentralized Whig leadership failed to take a decisive stance on the slavery issueeffectively splitting the party along the Mason—Dixon line. Southern rural planters, initially attracted by the prospect of federal infrastructure and schools, aligned with the pro-slavery Democrats, while urban laborers and professionals in the northern states, threatened by the sudden shift in political and economic power and losing faith in the failing Whig candidates, flocked to the increasingly vocal anti-slavery Republican Party.
In countries that use proportional representation PRa two-party system is less likely, especially in countries where the whole country forms a single constituency, as it does in Israelalong with low electoral thresholds to obtain office.
Israel 's electoral rules historically had an electoral threshold for a party to obtain a seat as low as one-percent of the vote; the threshold is 3. The number of votes received for a party determines the number of seats won, and new parties can thus develop an immediate electoral niche.
Duverger identified that the use of PR would make a two-party system less likely. However, other systems do not guarantee new parties access to the system: Malta provides an example of a stable two-party system using the single transferable votealthough it is worth noting that its presidential elections are won by a plurality, which may put a greater two-party bias in the system than in a purely proportional system.
Counterexamples[ edit ] Duverger did not regard this principle as absolute, suggesting instead that plurality would act to delay the emergence of new political forces and would accelerate the elimination of weakening ones,  whereas proportional representation would have the opposite effect.
The following examples are partly due to the effect of smaller parties that have the majority of their support concentrated in a small number of electorates rather than diluted across many electorates.
Riker noted that strong regional parties can distort matters, leading to more than two parties receiving seats in the national legislature, even if there are only two parties competitive in any single district. The following example seems counter to the law: In the Philippines sinceno party has been able to control the House of Representatives ; although the party of the president usually has the plurality of seats, it still has to seek coalition partners to command a majority of seats.
It may be relevant that the Philippines' governance structure changed repeatedly before and that the country has many distinct social groups. The average number of candidates in the House of Representatives elections in every district is only 2.
There are also cases where the principle appears to have an effect, but weakly: In India, there are 38 political parties represented in the Parliament. Like the UK and Canada, India has a winner-takes-all system.
In Canada, five parties are represented in the House of Commons, and the number has averaged between 4 and 5 since Only three of these governing Liberals, opposition Conservatives and third place NDP are considered "major parties" because the other two parties lack official party status as they hold fewer than 12 seats.
Canada has had more than two registered parties in the House of Commons, sinceand at only three relatively brief periods in Canadian history have there been only three parties represented —, —, and — However, only two parties Liberals and Conservatives have ever formed government.
This is because Duverger's law says that the number of viable parties is one plus the number of seats in a constituency. In southwest England, the Lib Dems face off against the Conservatives.The Media Has A Probability Problem The media’s demand for certainty — and its lack of statistical rigor — is a bad match for our complex world.
Texas Won’t Fix Its Discriminatory Voting Laws. Can the Courts? What this handout is about This handout provides definitions and examples of the two main types of abstracts: descriptive and informative. It also provides guidelines for constructing an abstract and general tips for you to keep in mind when drafting.
Continued. Learn how to write a persuasive essay using this list of topics, organized by degree of difficulty. Find the best topic for your persuasive essay. I like to use two definitions for crowdsourcing: The White Paper Version:Crowdsourcing is the act of taking a job traditionally performed by a designated agent (usually an employee) and outsourcing it to an undefined, generally large group of people in the form of an open call.
The Soundbyte Version:The application of Open Source principles to fields outside of software. Since , nine federal court rulings have concluded that Texas passed intentionally racist voting laws. Three happened in just the past two weeks.