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The phrase was first used about or Statistics provided by the U. Department of Labor DOL indicated that only 2 percent of top level management jobs and 5 percent of corporate board positions were held by women as of The failure of more women and minorities to crack the upper levels of corporate management is due to the glass ceiling.
Statistics prove beyond doubt that a glass ceiling existed long before the term was introduced. These barriers to minority progress had previously defied clear definition but, in the late s, the glass ceiling became part of the language of management literature.
Several articles in publications such as the Wall Street Journal detailed the increase of women in administrative and management level jobs, from 24 to 37 percent over a period from to Yet the glass ceiling blocked women from rising to top management positions as mentioned above.
On March 24,a special page section of the Wall Street Journal did much to define the glass ceiling for women. The inclusion of minorities would follow. This report did much to bring full light to the ceiling in the corporate world.
Using interviews and data to highlight the issues, the Journal report was the first landmark publication of a powerful voice in employment equity. Another significant work was published in Sponsored by the Center for Creative Leadership and written by Ann Morrison, Breaking the Glass Ceiling synthesized the data and attitudes on the invisible barriers as well as outline the problems, provided a formula for success, and described the pattern of future progress in breaking the ceiling.
The conclusions of the study pointed to few true differences between men and women in psychological, emotional, or intellectual qualities; but the study found that contradictions in the expectations for women were a major factor in the glass ceiling.
Women were expected to be tough but not display "macho" characteristics; they were expected to take responsibility yet be obedient in following orders; and they were expected to be ambitious yet not to expect equal treatment. Also, the glass ceiling applied to women as a group, not just individuals.
DOL data supported the independent conclusions of the findings of the Center for Creative Leadership team and those of the Catalyst, a New York-based research organization that advised corporations on how to foster the careers of women.
Of 31, management-level employees, 5, At the executive level, women represented only 6. Other studies identified similar statistics, another factor that reinforced other findings and eventually led to greater DOL involvement.
The organization studied employment and advancement trends for women in financial services, manufacturing, food and beverage industries, fashion retail merchandising, and high-technology corporations. Women face this glass wall early in their careers and miss opportunities for progressive training.
Following the wall, the glass ceiling naturally limits upward advancement. Among the first institutions to recognize the existence of the invisible barriers was the federal government. Recognition of dramatic changes in the economy and the workforce appeared in a formidable report published by the DOL in Workforce was a page document that helped to increase awareness of the role of women and minorities; it also defined the so-called "glass ceiling" with its various barriers.
Out of Workforce developed the Glass Ceiling Initiative, a DOL program intended to survey corporate America to identify the problems, causes, and solutions to the ceiling.
The driving force behind the initiative was Elizabeth Dole, secretary of labor in the administration of President George Bush.
The Glass Ceiling Initiative called for an investigation to begin in the fall of Nine Fortune companies representing a broad range of businesses would be selected at random for review. Independent compliance reviews were conducted to explore the glass ceiling fully. Stated goals were to promote a diverse workforce; to promote corporate conduct conducive to cooperative problem solving; to promote equal opportunity; and, to establish a DOL blueprint for future reviews at all management levels.
The initiative had four major components: The program was designed to produce specific results—including identifying barriers, eliminating the problems, and increasing awareness of these barriers and the resulting discrimination.
The first report from the extensive studies was issued on August 8, None of the nine companies under review were cited for discriminatory practices, but a number of them failed to comply fully with all affirmative action requirements. The DOL realized that a review of such a small sample was not an especially scientific study but found ample evidence that the progress of women and minorities in management positions was blocked by considerably more than qualifications and career directions.
The initiative found organizational and attitudinal barriers as strong obstacles to minority advancement. These barriers included three major categories.
First was recruitment practices that centered on word-of-mouth and referral networking. Secondly, several career advancement opportunities were often unavailable to women and minorities. These included credential-building experiences such as advanced education, developmental practices, and assignments essential to career enhancement.Have a little fun with your decor!
This celestial Sputnik style ceiling light features fifteen frosted glass lights within larger clear glass balls on metal metin2sell.com: $ Glass ceiling definition is - an intangible barrier within a hierarchy that prevents women or minorities from obtaining upper-level positions.
an intangible barrier within a hierarchy that prevents women or minorities from obtaining upper-level positions. A glass ceiling is a metaphor used to represent an invisible barrier that keeps a given demographic (typically applied to minorities) from rising beyond a certain level in a hierarchy.
The metaphor was first coined by feminists in reference to barriers in the careers of high-achieving women. The glass ceiling is different from the gender pay gap, i.e. the fact that women on average make 80% of what men do for the same work, per the Institute for Women’s Policy Research.
Shattering the Glass Ceiling: How to Break Through Without Breaking Down [Gia Suggs, Hayward Suggs] on metin2sell.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. What good is a breakthrough that leaves you broken? Are you paying too high a price for your professional success? Do you feel undervalued.
The Glass Ceiling - Does It Still Exist? There are many questions that come to mind when looking at the structure of any organizations. Within the social organization, employees face many challenges such as sexual harassment, violence, rape, depression, and discrimination.