She told them her number one priority was to bring equality to the work place.
Salons provided a place for women and men to congregate for intellectual discourse. In a male-dominated society, women served as the hostesses, decided the agenda of topics to be discussed, and regulated the conversation. The emergence of salons allowed for leadership and involvement for women in intellectual areas in Paris in the early 18th century.
Salons were another outlet that influenced how women regarded social status and power. During the reign of Louis XIV from pictured left2there was a movement to organize scien ce and the arts under the umbrella known as the royal academies. The founding of academies for sculpture, painting, music, dance and the sciences gave the monarchy a sense of grandeur that solidified absolutist ideology and glorified participation in the arts.
The court served as a public symbol of status and power for elites and the court atmosphere ushered in the emergence of the salon in Paris. The salon acted as an extension of the royal court atmosphere since royal courts had already allowed women to assume authority in some matters of "taste and pleasure.
It also resulted in the significant increase in access to political information and opinions. During the 17th and early 18th century, women were married by their early-to-mid teens.
These marriages were selected by the woman's family based on advantages that the family would receive rather than the woman's personal preference or happiness. Relationships between husband and wife were mostly non-fulfilling, leading women to seek "careers" and center their time and effort around roles of salonnieres, or ladies in waiting.
Social Structure of the Salons Social hierarchy and behavioral social guidelines allowed common people to interact with the nobility at Parisian salons.
While a hierarchy was acknowledged, commoners were able to interact with the nobility by upholding rules of speech and behavior. This "formalized rule-bound discourse" decreased the risk of insult or misunderstanding that may come with cross-class communication.
Those men who agreed with these sentiments allowed female governance in the salons of Paris because they too thought that a feminine touch could create a harmony and order amongst male predominated conversations. Salons were places of enlightened conversation, and thanks to the increased attention to gender equality and emphasis on the gentleness of women, salons offered an ideal location for women to take a leading role.
The determination of women for equal rights should not go unnoticed, however with the support of famous philosophers, like Montesquieu and Buffon, the emergence of women as salonnieres was accelerated and accepted.
Pictured to the right is Madame du Deffand, a well-known salonniere of the 18th century. Because the segregation of men and women was still rampant in the 18th century, women were not afforded the same opportunity to publish their ideas.
This powerful ability to control the content of discussions also determined on which matters philosophers would focus, and therefore steered the direction of their works. Although it did not suggest gender equality, it nonetheless suggested a need for women within the public sphere and opened the door to opportunities for women to be a contributing force in society.
According to Goodman, this delicate "compensation of feminine selfless for male ego" was a key foundation upon which the French Enlightenment was built.
However, many traditional male philosophes felt uncomfortable with this new need to recognize and incorporate women into Enlightenment cultural practices. This institution was found in the salons.In the 21st century, France has taken many steps in order to combat domestic violence and violence against women, in particular by enacting Law No.
, of July 9, , on Violence Against Women, Violence Between Spouses, and the Effects of These Types of Violence on Children.
Women are underrepresented in the French government. To date, there has only been one female prime minister. Edith Cresson held the position for about a year from to Jul 15, · And while the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development shows France doing better than most of the developed world on key indicators, such as women’s education, health care, and the.
Though Western Europe tends to be by far the best place in the world for women, according to the report's data, one of Europe's most progressive societies lags surprisingly far behind: France.
The French Republic ranks 57th in the world for women's equality, behind much of Eastern Europe, as well as Mongolia, Uganda and others. The intellectual excitement generated in France soon provoked feminist tracts elsewhere.
In England Mary Wollstonecraft wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women () and the German Theodore Gottlieb von Hippel published On the Civil Improvement of Women (). 6 Socio-Economic Status Ed. Guglielmo Weber Household Income Omar Paccagnella and Guglielmo Weber income component in Spain, Italy, France, Switzerland and to some extent Austria, Greece and the Netherlands.
It is much less important in Nordic countries and Germany. Socio-Economic Status • •.