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The pain of trying to get out of your car, wobble up the stairs, or move normally after a hard workout.
This soreness is called delayed onset muscle soreness DOMS.
Some lifters relish this pain as an indicator of success, but is that really the case? It can also occur in experienced lifters after taking a few weeks off. As you may have experienced, DOMS can range from slight muscle discomfort to severe pain that limits range of motion.
There is little doubt that DOMS is correlated with exercise-induced muscle damage to some degree; however, measures of muscle damage at a microscopic level are poorly correlated with reports of soreness.
This is supported by MRI images showing little damage to some muscles post-exercise. Certain types of exercise can cause significant muscle damage. The image below is taken after an extensive eccentric exercise protocol.
As you can see, the muscle fiber just looks messed up. The majority of studies examining exercise-induced muscle injury and DOMS use untrained subjects undertaking large amounts of unfamiliar eccentric exercise. This model is unlikely to closely reflect the circumstances of most people who workout.
However, it does give us some insight into what happens in the muscle. Image of muscle from an electron microscope after eccentric exercise.
Notice the disruption in the muscle pattern.
After high-intensity exercise, rest alone will return blood lactate to baseline levels well within the normal time period between training sessions. However, there is some evidence that hydrogen ions and reactive oxygen species — both of which increase in concentration during exercise — may contribute to DOMS 2.
Metabolic stress during exercise can cause changes on a structural level at the cell membrane sarcolemma. The damage allows fluids and other factors to enter the cell, which promotes inflammation 3.
Cell swelling occurs during exercise-induced muscle damage when fluid and plasma proteins can exceed the capacity of the drainage. Does DOMS mean more muscle growth? People who are new to working out often have the most pronounced DOMS.
They also happen to grow the most, so you can see how the two may be intertwined. This is due to the new stimulus that exercise provides. Interestingly, there is no difference in DOMS between sexes even for beginners 4.
There is some evidence to show DOMS may negatively affect workouts by altering motor patterns in subsequent workouts.April 20, By Brandon Roberts.
The Science of Sore – DOMS explained. Some lifters relish the pain of DOMS (or delayed onset muscle soreness) as an indicator of success, but is that really the case?
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