His father was a successful civil engineer and his mother was a housewife and devout Christian. His education started in the second grade, because he could already read before kindergarten. When Carl was 12, his family moved to a farm about 30 miles west of Chicago, and it was here that he was to spend his adolescence. With a strict upbringing and many chores, Carl was to become rather isolated, independent, and self-disciplined.
Emory University Social Cognitive Theory InMiller and Dollard proposed a theory of social learning and imitation that rejected behaviorist notions of associationism in favor of drive reduction principles. It was a theory of learning, however, that failed to take into account the creation of novel responses or the processes of delayed and non-reinforced imitations.
InBandura and Walters wrote Social Learning and Personality Development, broadening the frontiers of social learning theory with the now familiar principles of observational learning and vicarious reinforcement.
By the s, however, Bandura was becoming aware that a key element was missing not only from the prevalent learning theories of the day but from his own social learning theory. Inwith the publication of "Self-efficacy: With the publication of Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory, Bandura advanced a view of human functioning that accords a central role to cognitive, vicarious, self-regulatory, and self-reflective processes in human adaptation and change.
People are viewed as self-organizing, proactive, self-reflecting and self-regulating rather than as reactive organisms shaped and shepherded by environmental forces or driven by concealed inner Psychology theories and self reflection.
From this theoretical perspective, human functioning is viewed as the product of a dynamic interplay of personal, behavioral, and environmental influences.
For example, how people interpret the results of their own behavior informs and alters their environments and the personal factors they possess which, in turn, inform and alter subsequent behavior.
Bandura altered the label of his theory from social learning to social "cognitive" both to distance it from prevalent social learning theories of the day and to emphasize that cognition plays a critical role in people's capability to construct reality, self-regulate, encode information, and perform behaviors.
The reciprocal nature of the determinants of human functioning in social cognitive theory makes it possible for therapeutic and counseling efforts to be directed at personal, environmental, or behavioral factors.
Strategies for increasing well-being can be aimed at improving emotional, cognitive, or motivational processes, increasing behavioral competencies, or altering the social conditions under which people live and work. In school, for example, teachers have the challenge of improving the academic learning and confidence of the students in their charge.
Using social cognitive theory as a framework, teachers can work to improve their students' emotional states and to correct their faulty self-beliefs and habits of thinking personal factorsimprove their academic skills and self-regulatory practices behaviorand alter the school and classroom structures that may work to undermine student success environmental factors.
Bandura's social cognitive theory stands in clear contrast to theories of human functioning that overemphasize the role that environmental factors play in the development of human behavior and learning. Behaviorist theories, for example, show scant interest in self-processes because theorists assume that human functioning is caused by external stimuli.
Because inner processes are viewed as transmitting rather than causing behavior, they are dismissed as a redundant factor in the cause and effect process of behavior and unworthy of psychological inquiry. For Bandura, a psychology without introspection cannot aspire to explain the complexities of human functioning.
It is by looking into their own conscious mind that people make sense of their own psychological processes. To predict how human behavior is influenced by environmental outcomes, it is critical to understand how the individual cognitively processes and interprets those outcomes.
For Bandura"a theory that denies that thoughts can regulate actions does not lend itself readily to the explanation of complex human behavior" p. Similarly, social cognitive theory differs from theories of human functioning that overemphasize the influence of biological factors in human development and adaptation.
Instead, the theory espouses a bidirectional influence in which evolutionary pressures alter human development such that individuals are able to create increasingly complex environmental innovations that, "in turn, create new selection pressures for the evolution of specialized biological systems for functional consciousness, thought, language, and symbolic communication" p.
This bidirectional influence results in the remarkable intercultural and intracultural diversity evident in our planet. Social cognitive theory is rooted in a view of human agency in which individuals are agents proactively engaged in their own development and can make things happen by their actions.
Key to this sense of agency is the fact that, among other personal factors, individuals possess self-beliefs that enable them to exercise a measure of control over their thoughts, feelings, and actions, that "what people think, believe, and feel affects how they behave" Bandura,p.
Bandura provided a view of human behavior in which the beliefs that people have about themselves are critical elements in the exercise of control and personal agency.
Thus, individuals are viewed both as products and as producers of their own environments and of their social systems.
Because human lives are not lived in isolation, Bandura expanded the conception of human agency to include collective agency.
People work together on shared beliefs about their capabilities and common aspirations to better their lives.Psychology Theories & Self Reflection Words | 11 Pages. Introduction Psychology is the scientific study of behaviour and mental processes. It is a broad discipline which seeks to analyze the human mind and study why people behave, think, and feel the way they do.
Running Head: PSYCHOLOGY THEORIES AND SELF-REFLECTION 1 Psychology Theories and Self-Reflection PSYCHOLOGY THEORIES AND SELF-REFLECTION Psychology Theories.
Historical background Open bibliography in its own window: Modern attitudes toward homosexuality have religious, legal, and medical underpinnings.
PSYCHOLOGY Psychology: Understanding Self and Others Notes 4 MODULE - I Foundations of Psychology NEED FOR THE STUDY OF PSYCHOLOGY People hold a variety of expectations from the study of psychology. Mar 18, · Check out our top Free Essays on Psychology Theories And Self Reflection to help you write your own Essay.
Discussion. Maslow has been a very inspirational figure in personality theories. In the ’s in particular, people were tired of the reductionistic, mechanistic messages of the behaviorists and physiological psychologists.