Her field of interest is experimental particle physics.
Different tribes of Native Americans lived in the area that is now California for an estimated 13, to 15, years.
Over tribes and bands inhabited the area. The natives controlled fire on a regional scale to create a low-intensity fire ecology which prevented larger, catastrophic fires and sustained a low-density agriculture in loose rotation; a sort of "wild" permaculture.
This popular Spanish fantasy was printed in several editions with the earliest surviving edition published about In exploring Baja California the earliest explorers thought the Baja California peninsula was an island and applied the name California to it.
European explorers flying the flags of Spain and of England explored the Pacific Coast of California beginning in the midth century.
Francisco de Ulloa explored the west coast of present-day Mexico including the Gulf of Californiaproving that Baja California was a peninsula,  but in spite of his discoveries the myth persisted in European circles that California was an island.
Rumors of fabulously wealthy cities located somewhere along the California coast, as well as a possible Northwest Passage that would provide a much shorter route to the Indiesprovided an incentive to explore further.
He died in southern California in Cabrillo and his men found that there was essentially nothing for the Spanish to easily exploit in California, and located at the extreme limits of exploration and trade from Spain it would be left essentially unexplored and unsettled for the next years.
The Cabrillo expedition depicted the Indians as European interactions with africa essay at a subsistence level, typically located in small rancherias of extended family groups of to people.
Traditional clothing was minimal in the summer, with tanned deerhide and other animal leathers and furs and coarse woven articles of grass clothing used in winter. Feathers were sewn into prayer pieces worn for ceremonies. Some tribes around Santa Barbara, California and the Channel Islands California were using large plank canoes to fish and trade, while tribes in the California delta and San Francisco Bay Area were using tule canoes and some tribes on the Northwest coast carved redwood dugout canoes.
Despite this, the natural abundance of California, and the environmental management techniques developed by California tribes over millennia, allowed for the highest population density in the Americas north of Mexico. This tradition of landscape management through fire ecology maintained acorn groves and other food sources, which along with knowledge of migratory herds such as elk and anadromous runs of salmon in the rivers, supported villages, small tribes, and extended family groups.
A dietary staple for most Indian tribes in interior California was acornswhich were dried, shelled, ground to flour, soaked in water to leach out their tanninand cooked. The grinding holes worn into large rocks over centuries of use are still visible in many rocks today.
Acorn preparation was a very labor-intensive process nearly always done by women. There are estimates that some Indians might have eaten as much as one ton of acorns in one year.
Acorns were gathered in large quantities, and could be stored for a reliable winter food source. Local trade between Indian tribal groups enabled them to acquire seasonings such as salt, or foodstuffs and other goods that might be rare in certain locales, such as flint or obsidian for making spear and arrow points.
Native cultures in California are much different from other Indian cultures in North America, and some have survived to the present day. California indigenous language diversity numbered 80 to 90 languages and dialects, some surviving to the present although endangered.
Spanish trading route [ edit ] In the Spanish developed a trading route where they took gold and silver from the Americas and traded it for goods and spices from China and other Asian areas.
The Spanish set up their main base in the Philippines. The trade with Mexico involved using an annual passage of Manila galleon s. The Eastbound galleons first went north to about 40 degrees latitude and then turning East they could use the westerly trade winds and currents.
San Francisco Bay escaped discovery for two centuries until it was finally discovered by land exploration in It is believed Drake put ashore somewhere north of San Francisco, where the Golden Hind underwent extensive repairs and accumulated needed supplies for a trip across the Pacific.
Leaving California, he completed the second recorded circumnavigation of the world after Ferdinand Magellan in He claimed all the land south of 42 degrees latitude, north of the imprecise Spanish claims and eastward from coast to coast for England, calling it Nova Albion.
The term "Nova Albion" was often used on European maps to designate territory north of the Spanish claims. Spanish maps, explorations etc. As was typical in this era, there were conflicting claims to the same territory, and the indigenous peoples who lived there were never consulted.
He named San Diego Bay. He also put ashore in Monterey, California and made glowing reports of the Monterey bay area as a possible anchorage for ships with land suitable for growing crops. He also provided rudimentary charts of the coastal waters, which were used for nearly years.
The eastern and northern boundaries of Alta California were very indefinite, as the Spanish, despite a lack of physical presence and settlements, claimed essentially everything in what is now the western United States.
After the establishment of Missions in Alta California afterthe Spanish treated Baja California and Alta California as a single administrative unit, part of the Viceroyalty of New Spainwith Monterey, Californiaas its capital.
Nearly all the missions in Baja California were established by members of the Jesuit order supported by a few soldiers. After the forcible expulsion of the Jesuit order, most of the missions were taken over by Franciscan and later Dominican friars.
Both of these groups were under much more direct control of the Spanish monarchy.General Overviews. The nature, dynamic, and development of the subject of African historiography have attracted the attention of many scholars. Afolayan provides us with a succinct chronological overview.
Jewsiewicki and Newbury examines the sociopolitical conditions that shaped the development of historical writings in Africa. . European Colonization Essay Uploaded by chewie14 Brief summation of European exposure and colonization of the New World, including nations of Portugal, Spain, 5/5(12).
The Views of Native Americans and Europeans During the 16th and 17th centuries, when the Europeans started to come over to the new world, they discovered a society of . Culture of South Africa - history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family Sa-Th.
Trade among European and African precolonial nations developed relatively recently in the economic history of the African continent. Prior to the European voyages of exploration in the fifteenth century, African rulers and merchants had established trade links with the Mediterranean world, western.
About us. John Benjamins Publishing Company is an independent, family-owned academic publisher headquartered in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. More.