Economic history of India A woman in Dhaka clad in fine Bengali muslin18th century. Up until the 18th century, Mughalistan was the most important center of manufacturing in international trade. Calico Acts and Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution The key British industry at the beginning of the 18th century was the production of textiles made with wool from the large sheep-farming areas in the Midlands and across the country created as a result of land-clearance and enclosure.
Europe, to Between andtextile production was second only to agriculture in economic importance. It employed more people and produced more profit than any other manufactured product.
Production and trade existed at two levels. Everywhere peasants and villagers turned locally grown wool and flax into fabric and clothing for themselves and their neighbors. The cloth they produced was of poor quality and not designed for export to distant markets. On top of this local market sat a large and lucrative luxury trade in silk, wool, linen, and eventually cotton fabric, the most important of which were heavy woolens.
The customers for these fabrics were wealthy landowners, government and church officials, merchants, financiers, aristocrats, and master craftsmen in EuropeAsia and the Levant.
In the sixteenth century, Venice and other Italian cities acquired silkworms and mulberry trees, and began silk manufacturing.
At the same time, cotton thread and fabric began to arrive from India and became wildly popular. Most important of all the textile industries was the trade in raw wool and wool fabric.
Sheep raising abounded everywhere. In the fifteenth century, the best fleeces came from England. In the sixteenth century, Spanish merino sheep knocked English sheep into second place. French sheep were considered to produce the third best wool.
Two types of wool fabric were produced in Europe—woolens and worsteds. Of the two, the market for woolens was by far the larger. Woolens were made from short-staple wool fibers that were swirled together before spinning. The cloth had a soft-textured appearance and feel.
Worsteds were made from long-staple wool and had a harder, smoother finish. Soft woolens were considered far more desirable than the harsher worsteds and dominated the wool trade. Turning raw wool into fabric was a long, complicated process.
The fleeces were dirty and greasy, not uniform, and far from ready for spinning and weaving. Fleece breakers opened up the fleece and removed the large pieces of debris that were caught in it.The textile industry is the world ’ s oldest branch of consumer goods manufacturing and covers the entire production chain of transforming natural and chemical fibers (such as cotton, wool, and oil) into end-user goods, including garments, household goods, and industrial textiles.
Textile industry in India The textile industry in India traditionally, after agriculture, is the only industry that has generated huge employment for both skilled and unskilled labour in textiles. The textile industry continues to be the second-largest employment generating sector in India.
After the Cotton Famine, the European textile industry looked to new sources of raw cotton. The African colonies of West Africa and Mozambique provided a cheap supply.
Taxes and extra-market means again discouraged local textile production. Introduction: Cotton textile industry is one of the largest single industries in India.
It accounts for a large portion of the total industrial output in the country each year. Cotton Textile Industry in India: Production, Growth and Development! Growth and Development: India held world monopoly in the manufacturing of cotton textiles for about 3, years from about B.C. to A.D.
In the middle ages, Indian cotton textile products were in great demand in the Eastern and European markets. This cotton textile industry is now in a position to meet the total demand for textiles in the home market and to leave a sufficient surplus for foreign export.
The industry also contribute towards the total foreign income of our country and engage millions of people.