Classification of nanomaterials Typically, NPs are defined as an agglomeration of atoms and molecules in the range of 1— nm. They can be composed of one or more species of atoms or molecules and can exhibit a wide range of size-dependent properties. Within this size range, NPs bridge the gap between small molecules and bulk materials in terms of energy states [ 17 ]. NPs are generally classified based on their dimensionality, morphology, composition, uniformity and agglomeration [ 1819 ].
Foods[ edit ] A complex set of engineering and scientific challenges in the food and bioprocessing industry for manufacturing high quality and safe food through efficient and sustainable means can be solved through nanotechnology.
Bacteria identification and food quality monitoring using biosensors ; intelligent, active, and smart food packaging systems; nanoencapsulation of bioactive food compounds are few examples of emerging applications of nanotechnology for the food industry. A nanocomposite coating process could improve food packaging by placing anti-microbial agents directly on the surface of the coated film.
Nanocomposites could increase or decrease gas permeability of different fillers as is needed for different products. They can also improve the mechanical and heat-resistance properties and lower the oxygen transmission rate.
Research is being performed to apply nanotechnology to the detection of chemical and biological substances for sensanges in foods. In addition, color additives are obliged to comply with all regulations stipulated by the Color Additive Amendments of A safety assessment must be performed on all food substances for submission and approval by the US FDA.
The mandatory information in this assessment includes the identity, technical effects, self-limiting levels of use, dietary exposure and safety studies for the manufacturing processes used, including the use of nanotechnology.
Food manufacturers are obliged to assess whether the identity, safety or regulatory status of a food substance is affected by significant changes in manufacturing processes, such as the use of nanotechnology.
In their guidance document published in Aprilthe US FDA discusses what considerations and recommendations may apply to such an assessment.
According to company information posted on PEN's Web site, the canola oil, by Shemen Industries of Israel, contains an additive called "nanodrops" designed to carry vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals through the digestive system and urea.
Nanoceramic particles have improved the smoothness and heat resistance of common household equipment such as the flat iron. For optics, nanotechnology also offers scratch resistant surface coatings based on nanocomposites.
Nano-optics could allow for an increase in precision of pupil repair and other types of laser eye surgery. Textiles with a nanotechnological finish can be washed less frequently and at lower temperatures.
Nanotechnology has been used to integrate tiny carbon particles membrane and guarantee full-surface protection from electrostatic charges for the wearer.
Many other applications have been developed by research institutions such as the Textiles Nanotechnology Laboratory at Cornell Universityand the UK's Dstl and its spin out company P2i.
The traditional chemical UV protection approach suffers from its poor long-term stability.
A sunscreen based on mineral nanoparticles such as titanium oxide offer several advantages. Titanium oxide nanoparticles have a comparable UV protection property as the bulk material, but lose the cosmetically undesirable whitening as the particle size is decreased.
Spacecraft will also benefit, where weight is a major factor. Nanotechnology might thus help to reduce the size of equipment and thereby decrease fuel-consumption required to get it airborne. Hang gliders may be able to halve their weight while increasing their strength and toughness through the use of nanotech materials.
Nanotech is lowering the mass of supercapacitors that will increasingly be used to give power to assistive electrical motors for launching hang gliders off flatland to thermal-chasing altitudes.
Combustion engines might also benefit from parts that are more hard-wearing and more heat-resistant. By using nanotechnology, the military would be able to create sensor systems that could detect biological agents. This stiffness helps lessen the impact of whatever hit the armor, whether it was extreme heat or a blunt force.
By reducing the force of the impact, the nanoparticles protect the soldier wearing the uniform from any injury the impact could have caused.
Mobile pigment nanoparticles injected into the material can produce a better form of camouflage. There is still much research being done on this self-changing camouflage.
Nanotechnology can improve thermal camouflage. Thermal camouflage helps protect soldiers from people who are using night vision technology. Surfaces of many different military items can be designed in a way that electromagnetic radiation can help lower the infrared signatures of the object that the surface is on.
By lowering the infrared signature of both the soldiers and the military vehicles the soldiers are using, it will provide better protection from infrared guided weapons or infrared surveillance sensors. The system of threads in the uniforms could be set to different light wavelengths, eliminating the ability for anyone else to listen in.Introduction Nanotechnology is commonly considered to deal with particles in the size range.
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The degree of competitiveness in sports has been remarkably impacted by nanotechnology like any other innovative idea in materials science.
Within the niche of sport equipments, nanotechnology offers a number of advantages (Fig. 1) and immense potential to improve sporting equipments making athletes.
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introduction to nanoscience and nanotechnology. Questions to consider • Why nano? • What is a nanotechnology? • What opportunities are hidden in the nanodimension?
• What techniques are there for characterising nanoparticles? Potential impacts of nanotechnology Materials: Sports industry, cosmetics, clothing and space.