Going off of a very rough historical comparison to WW1 and earlier naval organizations try:

It has a mean orbital altitude of I presume the discrepancy is due to the fact that the ISS has an inclination of Elliptical Orbital Periods Just so you know, when it comes to planetary orbits and spacecraft trajectories, none of them are perfectly circular.

It is just that so many of them are close enough to being a circle that a science fiction author can get away with using the above equations. We call them Kepler's laws of planetary motion because Kepler found that the equations worked if you assumed the planet orbits were ellipses which are eccentric circles.

Kepler's boss Tycho Brahe was dumped in the dust-bin of history because he stubbornly insisted that planet orbits were perfect circles. And when you get to things like spacecraft transfer orbits, some are not even close to being circular.

Don't panic, it is easy to calculate. As long as you have the object's Periapsis and Apoapsis in meterswhich means the object's closest approach and farthest retreat from the planet it is orbiting. Those numbers are easy to find, for example see Wikipedia's entry for the Moon.

Periapsis called perigee ofkilometers and Apoapsis called apogee ofkilometers, right in the data bar on the right. Don't forget to convert the values to meters for the equations, e. Sometimes an orbit will actually be specified by the periapsis and apoapsis. For instance the Orion bomber's patrol orbit is described as a , km Terran orbit.

Given periapsis and apoapsis in meters, the Semi-Major Axis is: OrbitalVelocity unfortunately is a major pain.

You see, the orbiting object moves at different speeds at different parts of its orbit. It moves fastest at periapsis and slowest at apoapsis. Only if the orbit is perfectly circular does the orbiting object always move at the same speed.

If you want the orbital velocity at a specific point in the orbit, you will specify said point by its distance from the primary. The distance will be somewhere between periapsis and apoapsis, inclusive.

Again it will be fastest at periapsis and slowest at apoapsis. Ellipse bounding box If for some reason you want to draw the orbit, it isn't too hard.

As long as have a drawing program that can create an ellipse given a bounding box The Gimp, Inkscape, Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Illustrator. First you calculate the semi-major axis and the semi-minor axis. Draw the upper and lower sides of the box red lines in diagram above which are twice the length of the SemiMajorAxis in scale.

Draw the left and right sides of the box green lines which are twice the length of the SemiMinorAxis in scale. That is the bounding box. Draw a horizonal center line so it is equidistant from the top and bottom edges of the box. Draw a vertical line blue in diagram aboveand move it so it is one Periapsis scale length away from the right edge.

Where these two lines cross is the location of the planet. Move the box so the cross-hairs are on the planet image. Use the "draw ellipse" function of the drawing program such that the ellipse fits in the bounding box.

That is the orbit. You can erase the bounding box now, you don't need it any more. THE HILL SPHERE It is greatly desired that satellites and space stations stay in stable orbits, because corporations and insurance companies become quite angry if hundred million dollar satellites or expensive space stations with lots of people are gravitationally booted into The Big Dark.

A good first approximation is ensuring that the orbiting object stays inside the parent's Hill Sphere. This is an imaginary sphere centered on the parent planet the planet or moon the satellite is orbiting. Within the sphere, the planet's gravity dominates any satellites.

For first approximation you have three players: The point is that Sol cannot gravitationally capture Supra-New York as long as all of the space station's orbit is inside Terra's Hill Sphere.

You can calculate the approximate radius of a planet's Hill Sphere with the following equation: The same goes for units of mass for m and M. This equation assumes that the planet is in a near-circular orbit.From March to September, the Dennis Rawlins page on Wikipedia was trashed repeatedly by the sort of dirty-fighter censors which establishments traditionally use to discourage exposure of what they're ever-hiding.

scope designation: outer diameter [mm] working length [cm] suction channel [mm] smallest endotracheal tube size (tube sizes are the smallest possible with each instrument. Experts’ memory superiority for domain-specific random material generalizes across fields of expertise: A meta-analysis.

WHY THE GERMANS LOSE AT WAR: The Myth of German Military Superiority [Kenneth Macksey] on metin2sell.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The German armed forces suffered crushing defeat in the last century. Kenneth Macksey examines the reasons behind these catastrophic military failures: the random fortunes of war.

In the section Ship Design Analysis we will examine what spacecraft warships will need, what they won't need, and what sort of tasks they will likely be required to perform. In the section Ship Types we will examine the thorny issue of the terminiology of the various types of spacecraft.

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